Every presentation and pitch ends with a Q&A session. It is an incredibly important part of the overall presentation and it should not be left to chance.
It breaks the format of the pitch. Your presentation has gone along a certain path with you and your team talking and, for the most part, the prospect listening. Now the tables have turned. That change in format will cause the prospect to tune in anew to what you have to say. He or she is no longer lulled into the predictable rhythm of your presentation.
I haven’t seen research on it, but I suspect that overall, prospect attention is very high during Q&A, surpassed only when you opened the presentation.
Attention drops during the middle section of most presentations, which is why you’ll often hear questions from prospects on things you discussed in the pitch but that they didn’t hear. When a prospect asks a question about something you covered previously, there’s no need to remind everyone that you already covered it. Simply, answer the question.
Many presentations assume that the Q&A will come at the end of the pitch. Don’t do that. You don’t want the pitch to just peter out after all the questions have been asked. Put your Q&A before the close; this way your prospects’ questions have been answered and their attention is peaked before you deliver your close, thank everyone, and ask for the business. I suggest you say something like “before we close the meeting, are there any questions you would like to ask.”
Make sure your prospect knows they can ask questions at any time; a presentation I attended recently started with the group leader saying they would take no questions until the end. It killed the connection between presenter and audience.
Taking questions as they arise says you are confident in what you are presenting. Somewhere in the beginning of your presentation tell the audience that there will be a Q&A session near the end, but they should feel free to ask questions at any time.
A couple other guidelines:
- Not everyone on your team has to answer every question. Don’t encourage piling on with additional answers.
- Get out of the habit of starting every answer with “that’s a good question”. Just answer the damn question.
- You might have a question for them based on what they’ve been asking. Now is the time to ask it.
Finally, at some point during a Q&A, you will be asked a question you don’t know the answer to. Look at this as an opportunity. Be 100% honest and say you don’t know the answer, BUT, you will find the answer and get back to them before the end of the day. This now gives you permission to call the prospect to discuss your pitch further.
Any further questions?
Remember the story of Winston Churchill who said he needed to stay at home and work on his extemporaneous remarks for an event he was going to the next day. If you have a suspicion that you might be called on to give a speech, especially if you are the owner of a company, or the head of a division, or the head of an organization, or the sibling of an honoree; be ready to give a toast.
Don’t try to be funny. Comedians hone their material for months. It’s highly unlikely that you are going to hit the ball out of the yard with a funny remark. Don’t even try. Just be yourself and if a funny thing comes out of your mouth, enjoy it along with everyone else.
A toast is the time to thank people and acknowledge good work, hard thinking, dedication, great food, terrific ideas. Everyone loves to be singled out for their achievements. Just be careful to have a list of the people you want to thank so that you don’t overlook anyone.
Tell a story
If you can find a story that relates to what the event is all about start by telling that story. Literally, start with the story…
“I want to tell you a story about…”
Remember that stories don’t have to be exact. You don’t have to tell everything that happened. You don’t need to give us side bar and back story information. Just tell the story then go into your acknowledgements
“I want to thank…”
And then close it up.
If other toasters thanked the host for the great party, you don’t need to do so, as well. Find something else to say that no one has used.
Be sincere, even if it is mushy. If you want to use the toast to thank someone for the impact he made on your life, do so. It will be a great toast.
It’s not about you
Sometimes in toasts I hear the speaker referring to themselves more than the person they are toasting. Try to keep yourself out of the story other than necessary.
Don’t be crude or rude.
Avoid stories where you have to repeat off-color remarks or sordid activities. Keep it clean and keep it on a higher level. I’m a person who can have a pretty foul mouth, but when making a toast, I’m a choir boy.
If you are the host, never force people to make a toast. This is a purely volunteer activity.
Have a close
Have you ever noticed that when someone is giving a toast they get to the end and seem to run out of steam? You raise your glass thinking it’s time to drink when the speaker gets a second wind? Then they seem to be coming to the end again and you raise your glass and they fool you again. Have one ending and get the hell off the stage. You may think of a better one two seconds after you deliver the first, but thems the breaks. Close the toast. Smile. Drink. Leave.
When all else fails…say the following.
“What a great event. Let’s wish our honoree all the best. To Joe! Congratulations. Now let’s enjoy the party!”.
One of the skills that you should hone is the ability to stand up and speaking extemporaneously. The reality is that there are going to be far more opportunities for you to make a spontaneous remark, or speech, or introduction, then there will be to prepare a presentation, rehearse it and have slide support.
But, how do you develop that skill?
Practice and structure. Structures are concepts that allow you to put your thoughts into a template to help frame your remarks. Here’s a simple one. If I have to give a toast, I already know I’m going to say the following:
- Isn’t this a great celebration?
- Thanks to the hosts for throwing it.
- Congratulations to the honoree
I know if someone asks me for an overview of something I’m involved in, for example, how is teaching at Harvard, I’m going to use this handy structure:
Which translates to:
- Opportunity: This was a great opportunity for me. I love teaching. I love helping people get better at their communications skill. And, from a business standpoint, it’s not so bad to be associated with Harvard.
- Solution: I teach the class using the same style that I use in workshops. I throw out a few key concepts but the main work is getting people to stand and deliver multiple presentations and get plenty of feedback.
- Benefit: It’s great to watch people improve right before your eyes. It’s personally rewarding for me.
A Structure for When Things Go Wrong
Here’s an example of speaking about a difficult situation and a how structure can save the day: Recently one of my friends was personally involved in an unpleasant incident and asked me for advice of how to handle it. I love the ‘3Rs’ structure that some PR people use:
In other words:
- Regret: “I can’t tell you how much I regret what happened, and in particular how much I feel for the other person’s family that had to go through these challenges”
- Reason: “As best as I can tell, here is what happened.”
- Repair: “Here’s what I am going to do to make sure this never happens again.”
Finally, a standard no-fail structure is the use of rhetorical questions to frame your remarks from the onset. There are 3 kinds of rhetorical remarks you can use:
- Basic Rhetorical question
- Polling question
- What-if question
For example, you are asked to speak about the effort in your company to cut energy waste.
- Try a basic rhetorical question: “Would we all agree that cutting energy waste is the right thing to do?”
- Or a polling question: “How many people here make an effort to cut energy waste at home? How many people think we should be doing it here at work?”
- Or a what-if question: “What if there were a way for a company like ours to cut energy waste by 30%. Do you think we should attempt it even though it will mean all of us will have to sacrifice to make this happen?”
Now you’re off and running, ready to go into the specifics:
“I’m happy to tell you that we were able to cut energy 37% and most of you probably didn’t even know you were helping, because it was so easy to do. We achieved it because:
- You shut off lights when you left the room,
- You turned your computer off at night,
- We started recycling bottles and papers,
Practice is the Key
All of these little tricks work, but only become helpful if you practice. Now, you might say that you seldom get chances to speak extemporaneously, but my guess is that you always have opportunities to speak off the cuff, you just don’t realize you’re doing so. And, you don’t need to just use them in the office. There are countless times you speak off the cuff in social and family situations. The next time you see the opportunity, seize it and play around with one of these structures.
Speaking spontaneously will do wonders for your career. You’ll be seen as the go-to person and regarded with more esteem. The more you use these structures, the better and more confident you will become.
Making a pitch while seated at a conference room table has a body language all its own. One of my clients listened intently as we went through each one. He practiced at the table as I went through them. A few months later he called me to say that his last few new business pitches have all been successful and he credited the conference table body language techniques as the cause.
How to Say Hello
When you enter a conference room to greet the prospect, try to avoid shaking hands over the table. Instead walk around the table to the other side and shake hands. Do the same at the end of the meeting.
Where/How to Sit
The preferred place to sit at the table is a center seat, not an end seat. However, you should always sit across and close to your client. The one exception is if the client sits at the end, you should sit on the side, but close to the client.
Assuming you are with a team of people, the most important people involved in the pitch should sit closest to the prospect. That often means that if you are the most senior person at the table, but you won’t be actively involved in the account, you should sit further away.
When it is your turn to present there are a few things to think about. If the chair you are on goes up and down, set it as high as possible. Lean in slightly. Hands above the table. Don’t sit straight up, and never lean back. Feel free to move your hands as you talk, but not as exaggerated as when you are standing. Stay in that position for the entire time of your presentation, including Q&A. The only time to sit back is when you hand off the presentation to your team mate.
When your team mate is presenting it is very important that you look interested. This may be difficult because you may have heard the pitch a million times, and you’re now relaxing after your turn. But, all of the prospects on the other side are watching and you have to look interested. Avoid pushing too far back from the table; avoid crossing your arms as you sit and listen.
If you are presenting exhibits or drawings for the prospect to look at, it’s fine to stand up at your chair and put them out, leaning in as you discuss each one.
Make Eye Contact with Everyone
Make sure that when you are presenting, or answering questions, that you make contact with everyone on the other side of the table, not just the CEO. The other people may not be able to hire you, but they can sure see to it that you are not hired. You can bet that after the meeting the CEO will call her team together and say “OK, what do we all think?” You need all of those people on your side. Do that with eye contact and smiles.
Ask for the Business
Someone on your team should be charged with summarizing the presentation at the close then asking the prospect for the business. Whoever that is needs to look them all in the eye, ask for the business, then, everyone on your side must remain silent until the prospect responds.
Congratulations. You just won a nice account.
Here’s how most teams pitch business. After the initial greetings and the mandatory “We’re excited to be here” they start from the left of the diagram and work towards the right.
WHO → HOW → WHY/WHAT
“Let me tell you about my company (tells company story). Let me tell you about the people I brought with me today (introduces everyone with bios). Let me tell you how we work (describes process). What our mission statement is (reads statement). What drives us (gets teary eyed). What makes our clients so successful (drops names). Here is the agenda for this meeting (reviews every detail). OK. Let’s get started.”
The problem is that the pitch team used the most valuable real estate of the pitch, the opening, to talk about themselves and hardly anything about the prospect. Always remember this in a pitch:
The prospect could care less about your company, your team and your mission statement. The prospect only cares about the prospect.
Then, to make matters worse, the pitch team wants to discuss the WHY—WHY the prospect should hire them.
The prospect, assuming she is still awake, is much more interested in the WHAT of the pitch: WHAT are you going to do to fix my problems? WHAT will you do to make me look better in my boss’s eyes? WHAT strategy will you use against my hated competitors? WHAT will you do to make me more successful?
Here’s a better plan
WHAT → HOW → WHO
The first thing out of the pitch leader’s mouth after Good Morning should be WHAT the team will do for the prospect. This may include saying things like:
“We think the biggest challenge you have to succeed is X. We say that based on this research. WHAT we aim to do is focus ruthlessly on X. Here is HOW we will overcome X. We’ll do these three things. Here is WHO we brought with us today because they are experts at combating X. Our company has a long track record in this area, as well. OK. Let’s get started.”
This opening is totally tailored to the prospect and her needs. Nothing else. It’s all about the benefits you are bringing to the party. And, you will own the client’s attention.
I can hear the cries now. “We didn’t get to tell them why they should hire us.” If you did a good job it will be apparent, but the time to do that is in the close. Give a summary of the pitch and tell them why you are best suited for handling the business. Then ask for the account.”
Send me a basket of fruit as a thank you when you win.
For years, marketing people, management consultants and networking experts held forth on what the perfect elevator speech should say. You know the elevator speech. It got its name on the premise that if you meet someone in an elevator and they ask you what you do, you are able to give a powerful blurb about yourself in the time it takes to reach the ground floor.
Many consultants pushed people to be “creative” with their elevator speech and at the same time had them load it up with benefits to the listener. That’s a lot of information in one or two initial sentences.
Most elevator speeches go something like this, “Hi, my name is Ray Brown and I help my clients find inner peace by underwriting for them the best damn business insurance program in the country.” Or… “Hi, I’m Susie Brown and I’m called the Duchess of Devotion because my personal mission is to help each employee get 100% of the benefits they earned and deserve.”
Most elevator speeches are used at networking functions. I meet someone and make the mistake of saying, “Hi, what do you do?” then they unleash this fabricated salvo of words at me that sounds like they lifted a segment from a Tony Robbins seminar. It’s never conversational and always thrown at you as if it were a hand grenade. “Hi, I’m Bill Smith and I help my clients protect the ROI on their investments by executing a 9 step program that looks under every rock for traps.”
A Better Elevator Speech
Here’s the problem with all these elevator speeches. They are canned, they are not in people-speak and they are awkward. It’s someone talking at you, not with you. Here’s a better format:
“Hi, nice to meet you, I’m Bill Smith.”
“Hi Bill. My name is Jack Rossin.”
Then we might chat about why we are at the networking function, and often from something he says I’ll ask “Oh, what do you do Bill?” And Bill says something like “I’m an accountant.” And I ask “Big firm, small?” After Bill answers I might ask if there is an area he specializes in, how his business is these days, etc. If he works for individuals I might ask how all these do-it yourself tax programs have helped or hurt his business. I’m demonstrating that I’m actively listening to what he just said, not waiting for my turn to speak.
Then he’s probably going to ask me what I do and I say “I’m a presentation trainer. I help people become more confident with business communications.” He’ll then ask me a few questions about my business. The closest I ever get to “selling” is when I tell about the coolest part of my business — watching how awful presenters become OK presenters after a few hours work. (Please note. I’m honest. I’ve never had a bad presenter become a great presenter overnight, but I’ve seen all of them move in the right direction.)
Then he might offer me his business card, I do the same, we shake hands and move on. I may make a note on his card to follow up if I think there is business or referrals there.
Get rid of your canned elevator speech. Live in the moment. Answer the questions asked without too much rambling, ask more questions of the other guy then he or she asked of you. Be interested and interesting. Have a real conversation. Smile. Listen. Have fun, exchange cards. If something comes of it, great. If not, keep working the room. You gotta throw a lot of pasta against the wall before something sticks.
In the past 8 weeks, I have been on a whirlwind adventure.
I’ve been all over the globe. I was in North Carolina and met people whose families settled there in the 1700’s. I ate incredible foods in Rome (my guide led us to fabulous places where the pasta was made by hand and redefined your understanding of delicious). I rode the #66 bus around Boston and Brookline.
I was in China. North China is much different than southern China. Different foods, different dialects and languages. In the north they eat lots of red meat, in the south more fish and plant based meals. I walked the Great Wall of China and it is truly great. I was in a racing skull in Seattle stuck in a pea soap fog. I stopped in London, Scotland and even had a tour of Vietnam with Dr. Seuss. In India I saw Frogs in the Well, I learned the difference between the year of the Dragon and the year of the Rabbit. I had freshly butchered lamb in Nairobi, I watched how the Chinese government plans not only families but childbirth. I was in New Orleans right after Katrina and saw a profound level of lawlessness and hopelessness.
Along the way I learned the proper etiquette and technique to bow in Japan. I have an even greater appreciation for the value of cats and dogs and mentors in our lives. I’ve seen life and death and illness and was not spared any of it.
And, I met people who have strong convictions. People who want to change the world and make it better. They convinced me to eat less meat, taught me about mindful eating, mindful reading and how to be more mindful of our planet and its oceans and environment. I saw the devastating effect poverty has on generations of Americans and how it effects their learning, their health, and their emotional state.
I celebrated April Fool’s Day all around the world. I’ve celebrated with a bunch of Scots their first Thanksgiving in the US and watched as they tried to make a turkey and then carve it. For dessert I learned how to make an apple pie. It was not nearly as hard as I thought it would be.
I experienced all of these things and much more teaching a presentation training class for 12 Harvard School of Public Health students. Many of these students were quite accomplished with MDs and PhDs, and all of them want to improve health care to make the world better. They came together in this class from all around the world and they brought with them to the podium their family history, cultures, customs and intelligence. Regardless of the subject, they spoke with great passion creating vivid scenes for all of us to be a part of.
It was one of the most rewarding adventures I have ever been on.
Early in my career I was fortunate enough to work at Arnold Advertising. It was a large agency but not the behemoth that it is now. The creative director back then was Lenny Karsakov. At that time he was in his late 60s.
Lenny was a fabulous, kind, wonderful person. He loved everyone and everyone adored him. He got the best out of his art directors and writers by showering them with love. He never used the whip or threats to get better work. People wanted to please him.
Most afternoons Lenny would come back from lunch after stopping to buy a giant bag of M&Ms. He’d grab a large, silver Hatch Bowl (A Hatch Bowl is awarded to creative people for excellent creative work. The higher the award, the larger the bowl. Lenny’s office was scattered with bowls of all sizes.) He’d place the office phone into the bowl, hit “page” so that the whole office could hear and then slowly pour in the M&Ms. The clangs of the M&Ms hitting the silver bowl was a loud calling card to the rest of the agency. People from every corner on the floor would run to Lenny’s office for an afternoon M&M snack.
One day Lenny was diagnosed with cancer. None of us could accept or believe that such a wonderful person could be so stricken, but it was for real and it was serious. After a few months he could no longer come into the office. Then, one day late in the afternoon Arnold called the whole agency together. He said that the prognosis for Lenny had turned dark and that the doctors now estimated that Lenny had days to live. Arnold was preparing us for what would be crushing news, possibly in the next 24 to 48 hours.
Meanwhile, at the hospital Lenny was chatting with his nurse. He asked her where his neighbor in the next room had gone. The nurse explained that he went home. That as sick as he was he refused to acknowledge his illness and instead struck a very optimistic tone, and because of that he got better. Lenny, now aware of his own mortality listened closely and decided that he too had a lot more life to live, regardless of what the doctors said.
Two days later Lenny walked out of the hospital and shared his life with all of us for a number of years more. On the day he left the hospital his equally wonderful wife Eunice had a caricature of Lenny created in chopped liver and sent it to the ad agency to say he was back in business.
I am forever amazed at the strength of positive thinking. In my classes and workshops when people say they fear speaking in front of an audience, my job is to instill in them the confidence that they will be great; and then they are. I’m thinking of giving everyone M&Ms.
About 15 years ago I fell in love with golf. I devoted time, money, waking thoughts, and a lot more. In return, I received huge amounts of frustration, a sore back and tan legs with ghost-like white ankles and feet. Nevertheless, I can’t untangle myself from this relationship; we’ve gone too far.
There are actually a whole bunch of things I like about playing golf that have been significant. I love the social aspect of it. My Saturday morning group has been together for years and they feel more like family than family. I find the competitive nature of the play just right. I’m playing against the 3 guys in my group as well as my own previous low scores. Golf is a great excuse for being outdoors in beautiful settings which change with the seasons.
Golf also provides the ammunition for me and a million other people to compare the game to life. One such awareness that I made has truly changed my life and my business.
I drew a little diagram to illustrate my point.
For many years I would find myself in this predicament. The golf ball was in the fairway and I was marching towards the green. You can see from the diagram the direction I needed to hit the ball. In the lower right hand corner of the diagram is a pond. Ponds have a magnetic pull on golf balls, because so many of my shots land in the water.
But, if I hit the ball even vaguely straight, there is no danger that the ball will go in the pond. The water is too far to the right. I’d have to work really hard to get that ball in the pond. Yet, I would stand over the ball at address and keep thinking to myself, “This ball is going to go in the pond. I just know this ball is headed for the pond. I might as well walk it over and throw the damn ball in the pond.”
I would then hit the ball towards the flag, in the direction of the arrow and for reasons that defy physics, the ball would slice severely (goes right) and land in the aforementioned water hazard. After years of doing this with some regularity, I had an epiphany. I realized that I was willing the ball into the pond. I don’t know technically what I did to cause the severe slice that changed the trajectory of the ball to swing that far right, but I created it all in my head.
My epiphany was that whatever force I used to think the ball into the pond, I can use to think the ball towards the green. Maybe even onto the green.
And, it worked.
I started hitting the ball straight even when the pond was right next to me. I conquered my fear of ponds and play a lot better golf now.
What does this have to do with business or life? I started to appreciate the incredible power of negative thoughts and how they become self fulfilling prophecies. I started to understand that when you think bad things will happen to you, they often do because you have unconsciously aided and abetted them. Once I started thinking positively about what could happen, my game improved, my business improved and my life improved.
When I’m working with people on presentation training, I’ll often hear them tell me that they are not born speakers, that they are miserable presenters, and, that they are completely intimidated in front of groups.
I now know that they say these things with great assurance because they cause it to happen every time.
If you think you are going to do a poor job in a presentation, you will. Guaranteed.
If you think the audience won’t appreciate what you have to say. Ditto. You are right again.
But, let’s now think positive. Let’s believe that you have a great presentation about a subject the audience wants to hear. You must believe they will appreciate the message and value the talk. If you believe that is the case, you are already on your way to being an infinitely better presenter.
Many people fear speaking in public. I’ve seen a relationship between people who believe they will bomb in their next presentation, and their high level of anxiety. Conversely, when people believe they will hit the ball straight and true, they are much less nervous.
You must believe. The biggest obstacle to being a strong presenter is right between your ears.
7 Little Changes That Will Make a Huge Difference in Your Next Presentation
- eye contact
- use of hands
One of the things that gives me immense pleasure is working with someone on their presentation and having them incorporate one of these 7 little changes into their repertoire. It instantly enhances the presentation. Then, I slowly add one or two more of these techniques to the recipe and they are really cooking.
There are two reasons why these little changes work. For every one of these techniques, research has demonstrated that audience response is positive. These are techniques used by confident people. This is particularly important because the more the audience judges you as confident, the more likely they are to agree with whatever it is you are espousing.
These techniques also allow you to fake it. Fake confidence, that is. As long as the audience reads these techniques as signs that you are confident, it is less important whether you really are. But, then a miraculous thing happens, and this is the other reason why these little changes work. You not only fool the audience into thinking you are confident, you fool yourself. And, over time you believe you are confident and competent. That feeling only makes you stronger as a presenter. Amy Cuddy said, “Don’t fake it ’til you make it. Fake it ’til you become it.” She is a Harvard professor who researches body language.
Here are 7 easy presentation tricks:
#1 Eye Contact communicates to the audience that you are honest and believe in what you are saying. Watch when someone, often children, are not being square with you. They’ll look down at the ground or off to the side, anywhere but in your eyes. When making a presentation, make eye contact with everyone at the table. It will seem awkward to do at first, but once mastered, you will be an infinitely better presenter.
#2 Hands. Using hands and arms to express yourself is something the helps the audience understand your point better. It also makes them believe you know what you are talking about. If you are presenting at a podium, go out of your way to show your hands. If you are presenting seated at a table, make sure your arms are on the table and gesture frequently with your hands. Hands actually help your voice be less monotone and more interesting. Try it. Try speaking without moving your hands. You will have a less energetic delivery.
#3 Volume. Like hands, volume gives you more energy. You’ll find that when you speak in a bigger voice (not shouting) that your posture improves and your hands and arms are more animated. Remember a story I told recently where I pushed a shy woman to speak in an uncharacteristically big voice and she said it unleashed the Super Woman in her.
#4 Posture is an easy way to say you are in control and confident. Whether it is the posture when seated at a table or standing in front of the room, posture says you aren’t afraid of anyone. Bad posture, on the other hand, gives you that “deer in the headlights” look. Bad posture also inhibits volume and enunciation.
#5 Smile. Now, we’re really talking easy techniques to win over the audience. People who smile are confident about what they are saying, people who don’t aren’t. When you smile and make eye contact, the other person will smile back. You want the audience to like you. Smile and they are much more apt to do so. Smiling has a profound effect on your voice. It gives it modulation and makes it more interesting.
#6 Focus. You are so much better building your presentation around one idea instead of several. It also helps to make the presentation more concise and, hopefully, shorter. As we all learned from TED Talks, 18 minutes is the longest a presentation should go, so keep it to a single point and you’ll also stay within that most effective time frame.
#7 Pause. We often think that when it is our turn to speak we need to speak wall to wall; from the time we stand up until the time we sit down. It turns out that pauses sprinkled into your presentation are extremely helpful to the audience in getting the message. When you say something really important, pause after you say it and the audience will remember it longer. Theatrical pauses can surprise the audience and really get them smiling. If you get a bit lost in your presentation and need to regroup a short pause will be helpful. It will seem like the pause takes forever, but the audience will hardly note. And, if you are starting to lose the attention of the audience, just pause, and they will look up to see what’s going on.
These are seven techniques you can do immediately. Use them with other strong presentation techniques, such as storytelling and front-loading information into the presentation.